After providing all the funding for The Brain from Top to Bottom for over 10 years, the CIHR Institute of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Addiction informed us that because of budget cuts, they were going to be forced to stop sponsoring us as of March 31st, 2013.

We have approached a number of organizations, all of which have recognized the value of our work. But we have not managed to find the funding we need. We must therefore ask our readers for donations so that we can continue updating and adding new content to The Brain from Top to Bottom web site and blog.

Please, rest assured that we are doing our utmost to continue our mission of providing the general public with the best possible information about the brain and neuroscience in the original spirit of the Internet: the desire to share information free of charge and with no adverstising.

Whether your support is moral, financial, or both, thank you from the bottom of our hearts!

Bruno Dubuc, Patrick Robert, Denis Paquet, and Al Daigen

Friday, 27 July 2018
Two Books on the Enactive Approach in Cognitive Science

This week, I’d like to tell you about two books on the philosophy of cognitive science. Both of them were published in 2017, and both of them deal with the enactive approach first proposed in the 1990s by pioneers such as Francisco Varela and Evan Thompson. Since then, the enactive approach has become a major research topic in contemporary cognitive science, so it is no surprise that entire books are now devoted to it.

The first of these two books is Sensorimotor Life: An Enactive Proposal, by Ezequiel Di Paolo, Thomas Buhrmann and Xabier E. Barandiaran. Di Paolo helped to refine the concept of autopoiesis proposed by Varela and Humberto Maturana in the 1970s, an operational definition of life at the centre of a certain way of seeing embodied cognition (as, for example, in the thesis of the continuity between life and cognition defended by Evan Thompson in his book Mind in Life). This book is intended both for students and for researchers and offers what seem to be very broad considerations about embodied cognition and emotions, as we experience them at every moment in our everyday lives.

The other book, by Daniel Hutto and Erik Myin, is Evolving Enactivism. Basic Minds Meet Content. This book seems to be aimed more at the community of cognitive science researchers, and in particular those who investigate the philosophy of mind. Hutto and Myin are part of the radical interpretive school of enactivism, meaning that they defend the idea that some forms of cognition can exist without being associated with any semantic content (derived from the common, public forms of our representations in language). As you can see, these philosophical debates quickly get into technical details that can become very thorny and pretty abstract.

That is also the case for the following review of this book, written by Evan Thompson and published on the academic website Philosophical Reviews. Thompson can be very clear in his books, even when he is writing about complex subjects. But I have to admit that his rather negative assessment of Hutto and Myin’s book may be fairly opaque to the general public. The following excerpt does, however, provide a very good summary of the enactive approach.

The enactive approach is a cognitive science research program based on two interconnected pillars (see Varela et al. 1991; Thompson 2007; Di Paolo et al. 2017). One pillar is the rejection of the representational theory of mind, the emphasis on the dynamics of agent-environment sensorimotor coupling, and the thesis that embodied interaction is constitutive of cognition. The other pillar is the concept of biological autonomy. The basic idea is that living beings generate and maintain themselves. Stated more abstractly, an autonomous system is a self-generating and self-sustaining system. The theory of autonomous systems takes living systems as the paradigm and focuses on explaining the emergence and constitution of individuality, agency, and functional and behavioral norms. The theory of agent-environment coupling focuses on explaining cognition. For an account to be “enactive” in the full and precise sense of the term, it must include both theoretical projects. In contrast, both ecological dynamics and the sensorimotor contingency theory of perception (sometimes called “sensorimotor enactivism”) focus only on the sensorimotor coupling part of the story (and, as Hutto and Myin note, the sensorimotor contingency theory has often been presented in a representationalist way).

Body Movement and the Brain, From Thought to Language | No comments

Wednesday, 4 July 2018
Explaining Science Not at Three Levels But at Five

This week I’d like to draw your attention to a series of videos that the U.S. magazine Wired published on YouTube in spring 2017. In each episode of this series, an expert in a particular scientific field explain a complex concept in that field to five different people: a 5-year-old, a teenager, a college student, a graduate student and a colleague who is also an expert in that field. Thus you watch the expert explain the same concept five times—from the simplest possible explanation for the 5-year-old to a high-level discussion with the colleague. This is a highly original teaching approach that you don’t see very often, except on some websites where you can drill down from a simpler explanation to a second, more advanced one, or on a certain website about the human brain that provides three levels of explanation at five levels of organization (and whose author clearly must be obsessed with levels, probably because he read too much Laborit in his youth ;-P ).

So you can understand why I couldn’t resist telling you about this web series, especially since one of the episodes deals with the connectome, a neuroscientific research topic that I have discussed previously in this blog and also teach in some of the courses that I give in French in Montreal. (more…)

From the Simple to the Complex | No comments

Tuesday, 12 June 2018
We Are Blind to Many of the Reasons for Our Conscious Choices

In a study that they conducted in 2005, entitled “Failure to detect mismatches between intention and outcome in a simple decision task”, Lars Hall and Peter Johansson uncovered a spectacular phenomenon. In this experiment, the researchers showed their subjects pairs of cards with pictures of two different people’s faces and asked their subjects to pick whichever of the two people they found more attractive. Once a subject had made this choice, the experimenter took back the cards and then, using a little sleight of hand, gave the subject back the card that he or she had not chosen and asked what it was about the person pictured that made them more attractive. Over 80% of the subjects failed to notice that they had been given the wrong card and actually provided the kind of verbal explanation requested—that it was the expressiveness of the person’s eyes or the overall harmoniousness of their features, or what have you. (more…)

From Thought to Language | No comments

Tuesday, 29 May 2018
What Chaos Physics Tells Us About the Dynamic Brain

Once upon a time, not that long ago in the history of neuroscience, the chaotic aspect of all of the brain’s neuronal oscillations was regarded as mere “background” noise. But that time is now past. The temporal dimension of brain activity, as expressed in cerebral rhythms, and the associated synchronization of neural activity, is now central to research in such complex areas as sleep and consciousness. Much of our current understanding of how the dynamic activity of the human brain can be chaotic and yet meaningful is owed to the pioneering research of Walter J. Freeman. (more…)

From the Simple to the Complex | No comments

Tuesday, 15 May 2018
Memory Engrams: The Physical Traces of Memories in Your Brain

In 1923, German biologist Richard Semon proposed the engram theory of memory. According to this theory, when a person experiences something, a set of selected stimuli from this experience activates entire populations of neurons in that person’s brain, thus inducing lasting chemical and physical changes in their connections. These changes are known as the engram. Each of the assemblies of neurons thus selected thereby contributes to the storage of the memory.

As we shall see in a moment, this was a visionary concept, but Semon’s theory was almost completely ignored until the 1970s, when an article by Daniel Schacter, James Eich, and Endel Tulving brought it back into the scientific discussion. (more…)

Memory and the Brain | No comments