After providing all the funding for The Brain from Top to Bottom for over 10 years, the CIHR Institute of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Addiction informed us that because of budget cuts, they were going to be forced to stop sponsoring us as of March 31st, 2013.

We have approached a number of organizations, all of which have recognized the value of our work. But we have not managed to find the funding we need. We must therefore ask our readers for donations so that we can continue updating and adding new content to The Brain for Top to Bottom web site and blog.

Please, rest assured that we are doing our utmost to continue our mission of providing the general public with the best possible information about the brain and neuroscience in the original spirit of the Internet: the desire to share information free of charge and with no adverstising.

Whether your support is moral, financial, or both, thank you from the bottom of our hearts!

Bruno Dubuc, Patrick Robert, Denis Paquet, and Al Daigen





Funding Update

April 8th, 2014

Since government funding for The Brain from Top to Bottom ended on March 31, 2013, we have raised nearly $8000 in private donations from people like you. Your donations have let us keep publishing new content in our blog every two weeks for the past year, for which we want to express our deepest thanks. With your continuing generosity, we hope to be able to continue publishing bi-weekly blog posts for the year to come.


Monday, 30 April 2012
Theories on Drug Addiction

processus-opposantsThe abusive consumption of a drug can result in dependency on it. The various phenomena associated with drug dependency—also commonly referred to as “drug addiction”—are fairly well known: initial pleasure, then tolerance, withdrawal, and so on. But these phenomena are so complex that it is hard to construct satisfactory models for them. Hence, many theories have been developed to try to explain drug dependency/addiction, and these theories are still being debated today.

The Intermediate (green) link below takes you to an explanation of one of these theories, the opponent-process theory, complete with diagrams.

The Advanced (red) link takes you to a discussion of some recent neurochemical data that tend to support the effects described in the opponent-process model.

i_link Addiction and the Opponent Process Theory
a_link Addiction and the brain antireward system

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