After providing all the funding for The Brain from Top to Bottom for over 10 years, the CIHR Institute of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Addiction informed us that because of budget cuts, they were going to be forced to stop sponsoring us as of March 31st, 2013.

We have approached a number of organizations, all of which have recognized the value of our work. But we have not managed to find the funding we need. We must therefore ask our readers for donations so that we can continue updating and adding new content to The Brain from Top to Bottom web site and blog.

Please, rest assured that we are doing our utmost to continue our mission of providing the general public with the best possible information about the brain and neuroscience in the original spirit of the Internet: the desire to share information free of charge and with no adverstising.

Whether your support is moral, financial, or both, thank you from the bottom of our hearts!

Bruno Dubuc, Patrick Robert, Denis Paquet, and Al Daigen




Monday, 20 January 2014
The Continuum Between Life and Mind

Neurophysiologist Walter J. Freeman once made the provocative statement that there is: “no deeper prison of the modern mind than the Cartesian legacy that splits mind from life.” He then added that Evan Thompson, in his book Mind in Life: Biology, Phenomenology, and the Sciences of Mind, published in 2007, had recognized this impasse and helped to overcome it. In the October 2012 Brain Science Podcast, Dr. Ginger Campbell interviews Thompson about this book, which synthesizes knowledge from multiple disciplines.

In Mind in Life, Thompson successfully shows the profound continuity between life and mind, between the first living systems (such as bacteria) and cognition, the process by which we assign meaning to the attributes of our environment. In other words, he shows that cognition is embodied. This was the subject of The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience, the landmark work that Thompson co-authored with Francisco Varela and Eleanor Rosch in 1991 and to which Mind in Life constitutes a sort of sequel. (more…)

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Sunday, 12 January 2014
How to change my name in Roblox

We found that some degrees can not be passed by players and they require a little assistance simply to move on. As a result of Roblox Hack & Cheat Tool you don’t have this problem anymore. Some may say it’s cheating but getting mad at a game because you stuck is not the solution. You’re probably going to watch a few videos that will claim these tools can’t do their work and all of this discussion is for nothing. The truth is very different. As they weren’t upgraded Patches that are being released alter a few of the tools and the game may not do the job. Roblox Robux and Tix Generator Works

Online genarator created by us provides you with possibility to generate any number of Robux you need in addition to , money and more. There is no way it’s possible to locate another instrument. What is more, we’ve got lots of people who come to include free Robux not just for their sake but for. How to get Endless of Robux and Tix’s

More dreary approaches are a few advices if you want some other. Yes, they work, but it’s far far better to use applications made by us. It’s simpler and quicker. Tix called Robux, it. It is used to decorate where you are or to acquire various items to your outfits or even to alter your face. For that which we know, it’s a lot easier to get Tix rather than Robux and now we will share with you a few methods you can use. First, and possibly the most apparent one is all about logging to your account once a day. It’ll offer 50 Tix. We know it is not much but hey, it’s something in the event you want to conserve. Another alternative involves building a location. You’ll get a reward in type of tickets for hack roblox every man who visits with you if you get it popular enough among other players. Thanks to that it is possible to acquire tens of thousands of Tix per day but it doesn’t do the job. The outcomes will come. Except that, there is a commerce, in which Robux for tickets may alter. Press Trade Currency window, to accomplish this and enter the number of monies you are interested in being exchanged. Last but not least, think about selling things. Get rid of things you don’t want that are useless for you and alter it for the money!

Roblox, what is it?

The Roblox Corp studio made game today, we are discussing. It’s a large multi-player game designed especially for youths but let’s promise you that more mature viewers can enjoy it also. Regardless of that, developers generated name that’s quite consuming but instructional. This game is broken up into levels and it could be frustrating if you stuck even for skilled users. Except that, game utilizes communicating system thanks to that it’s possible to talk with one another during gameplay. What is more, in addition, it provides special benefits thanks to that it becomes more fascinating. Original avatar can be created by an individual, add number of additions such as hats, clothes, other and gears equipment parts. You might also alter whole shapes and body of your own head!

Social Portion of the Sport. Now after the game has got inside chat, folks and the close ones can talk and create friends listings. From more technological viewpoint, game gives you accessibility to its system that is coding, which means you add them to the game and can make your own plugins. There are. Roblox is free to play with game that offers a great deal of expertise. Of course ones can purchase memberships, which provide the Builders Club to many additional attributes for instance. To sum up all of of the things this name is a element of the kids’ childhood and addition to the education with which they can develop their heads. Online Tool for headset start? How can I get it? We found that some degrees can not be passed by players and they require a little help to move on. As a result of Roblox Hack Tool you don’t have this problem anymore. Some may say it’s cheating but getting mad at a game because you stuck is not the solution. You’re probably going to watch a few videos that will claim these tools can’t do their work and all of this discussion is for nothing. The truth is very different. Might not work as they weren’t upgraded.

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Tuesday, 7 January 2014
Human Frontal Cortex Differs Even Genetically

The basic goal of many neuroscientific studies is to determine what makes human brains so different from those of other animal species, and in particular those of our cousins, the great apes. One such study was conducted recently by geneticist Genevieve Konopka and her team, and it yielded some very interesting findings about the frontal lobe of the brain.

One difference that scientists already knew about was that the frontal lobe accounts for a greater proportion of the total surface area of the cortex in humans than in other species (29%, compared with 17% in rhesus monkeys, 7% in dogs, and 3.5% in cats). But Konopka and her team studied differences in the expression of the genes for the various neurons that compose the frontal cortex. Specifically, the team compared the genes that are expressed (and therefore, active) in the frontal cortex of humans with those expressed in the frontal cortex of chimpanzees and macaques. The geneticists found that many of these genes are expressed differently in humans compared with these two other primate species. (more…)

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