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After providing all the funding for The Brain from Top to Bottom for over 10 years, the CIHR Institute of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Addiction informed us that because of budget cuts, they were going to be forced to stop sponsoring us as of March 31st, 2013.

We have approached a number of organizations, all of which have recognized the value of our work. But we have not managed to find the funding we need. We must therefore ask our readers for donations so that we can continue updating and adding new content to The Brain from Top to Bottom web site and blog.

Please, rest assured that we are doing our utmost to continue our mission of providing the general public with the best possible information about the brain and neuroscience in the original spirit of the Internet: the desire to share information free of charge and with no adverstising.

Whether your support is moral, financial, or both, thank you from the bottom of our hearts!

Bruno Dubuc, Patrick Robert, Denis Paquet, and Al Daigen




Tuesday, 29 May 2018
What Chaos Physics Tells Us About the Dynamic Brain

Once upon a time, not that long ago in the history of neuroscience, the chaotic aspect of all of the brain’s neuronal oscillations was regarded as mere “background” noise. But that time is now past. The temporal dimension of brain activity, as expressed in cerebral rhythms, and the associated synchronization of neural activity, is now central to research in such complex areas as sleep and consciousness. Much of our current understanding of how the dynamic activity of the human brain can be chaotic and yet meaningful is owed to the pioneering research of Walter J. Freeman. (more…)

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Tuesday, 15 May 2018
Memory Engrams: The Physical Traces of Memories in Your Brain

In 1923, German biologist Richard Semon proposed the engram theory of memory. According to this theory, when a person experiences something, a set of selected stimuli from this experience activates entire populations of neurons in that person’s brain, thus inducing lasting chemical and physical changes in their connections. These changes are known as the engram. Each of the assemblies of neurons thus selected thereby contributes to the storage of the memory.

As we shall see in a moment, this was a visionary concept, but Semon’s theory was almost completely ignored until the 1970s, when an buy viramune 200 mg online article by Daniel Schacter, James Eich, and Endel Tulving brought it back into the scientific discussion. (more…)

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Tuesday, 1 May 2018
Limitations of Brain Mapping

With the use of tracers, dyes and modern brain-imaging technology, it is now possible to produce maps of the human brain. But why would we want to do so? Simply because http://advanceddentalmn.com/general-family-dentistry/tooth-extractions our cognitive functions emerge from interactions among numerous parts of the brain, in many cases physically quite distant from one another. If we can map the neural highways that form the various networks in our brains, or better still, understand which are the preferred highways for use in particular situations, we can learn a lot about how we go about talking, thinking and behaving.

But because the brain is so complex, brain mapping involves many problems and is subject to some major limitations. In this post I will discuss just two of these problems and a few limitations inherent in efforts to map the “connectome”—to prepare a map of all the nerve bundles connecting the neurons to one another in a given brain. (more…)

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